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世界上最大的生物

来源:admin 发布日期2018-09-19

If you want to know what the biggest organism in the world is, then you’;re in for a big surprise –; it’;s not an elephant or a tree, it’;s not even a blue whale! It’;s 2 miles across, and you don’;t even see most of it –; because it’;s a mushroom。 That’;s right, the largest living thing in the world is a mushroom: Armillaria solidipes (formerly Armillaria ostoyae) –; also called the honey mushroom。

Delicious, lethal, and incredibly large –; the honey mushroom。 Image via io9

A delicious treat, a parasite…; and incredibly large

If you ask different people about the honey mushroom, you’;ll get different replies。 For chefs, it’;s a treat and a very tasty ingredient。 Sauteed mushrooms or cream soup will satisfy even the most picky customer。

For a forester, they’;re a curse –; a lethal parasite which can destroy entire forests。 But for some biologists, it’;s a very interesting case study –; because only recently did scientists learn how big these things can get。 The largest reported individual measures 2。4 miles (3。8 km) across and can be found in the Blue Mountains in Oregon。 The fungus colony in case is also over 2,400 years old , ****** it one of the oldest organisms in the world as well。

Most of the time, the honey mushroom reproduces ***ually。 The fungi begin their life as spores, released into the environment by a mature mushroom。  When mycelia from genetically identical A。 solidipes meet, they can fuse to form one individual。 A very strange way of life has allowed them to endure through many centuries and thrive in such a way。

The structure of the clonal colony。 Image via io9

“;These are very strange organisms to our anthropocentric way of thinking,”; says biochemist Myron Smith of Carleton University in Ottawa, Ontario。 An Armillaria individual consists of a network of hyphae, he explains。 “;Collectively, this network is called the mycelium and is of an indefinite shape and size。”;

Fungus problems

In 1998, a team from the US Forest Service set out to understand why many trees were failling off in the Malheur National Forest in east Oregon。 They took aerial pictures and samples from the site, and it didn’;t take long to understand that the main cause was the honey fungus Armillaria solidipes (previously known as Armillaria ostoyae)。

本文源自: AG环亚游戏

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